Enhanced Mitochondrial DNA Repair of the Common Disease- Associated Variant, Ser326Cys, of hOGG1 through Small Molecule Intervention
a Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD
b Respiratory Therapeutic Area, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA
The common oxidatively generated lesion, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua), is removed from DNA by base excision repair. The glycosylase primarily charged with recognition and removal of this lesion is 8-oxoGuaDNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1). When left unrepaired, 8-oxodG alters transcription and is mutagenic. Individuals homozygous for the less active OGG1 allele, Ser326Cys, have increased risk of several cancers. Here, small molecule enhancers of OGG1 were identified and tested for their ability to stimulate DNA repair and protect cells from the environmental hazard paraquat (PQ). PQ-induced mtDNA damage was inversely proportional to the levels of OGG1 expression whereas stimulation of OGG1, in some cases, entirely abolished its cellular effects. The PQ-mediated decline of mitochondrial membrane potential or nuclear condensation were prevented by the OGG1 activators. In addition, in Ogg1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts complemented with hOGG1S326C, there was increased cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species compared to their wild type counterparts. Mitochondrial extracts from cells expressing hOGG1S326C were deficient in mitochondrial 8-oxodG incision activity, which was rescued by the OGG1 activators. These data demonstrate that small molecules can stimulate OGG1 activity with consequent cellular protection. Thus, OGG1-activating compounds may be useful in select humans to mitigate the deleterious effects of environmental oxidants and mutagens.
3. DNA Repair (Amst). 2019 Sep;81:102667
Roles of OGG1 in transcriptional regulation and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.
1. Department of Nutritional Sciences and New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, United States.
2. Oregon Institute for Occupational Health Sciences, Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, 97239, United States.
Cellular damage produced by conditions generating oxidative stress have far-reaching implications in human disease that encompass, but are not restricted to aging, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, airway inflammation/asthma, cancer, and metabolic syndrome including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver disease, and dyslipidemia. Although there are numerous sources and cellular targets of oxidative stress, this review will highlight literature that has investigated downstream consequences of oxidatively-induced DNA damage in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The presence of such damage can in turn, directly and indirectly modulate cellular transcriptional and repair responses to such stressors. As such, the persistence of base damage can serve as a key regulator in coordinated gene-response cascades. Conversely, repair of these DNA lesions serves as both a suppressor of mutagenesis and by inference carcinogenesis, and as a signal for the cessation of ongoing oxidative stress. A key enzyme in all these processes is 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), which, via non-catalytic binding to oxidatively-induced DNA damage in promoter regions, serves as a nucleation site around which changes in large-scale regulation of inflammation-associated gene expression can occur. Further, the catalytic function of OGG1 can alter the three-dimensional structure of specialized DNA sequences, leading to changes in transcriptional profiles. This review will concentrate on adverse deleterious health effects that are associated with both the diminution of OGG1 activity via population-specific polymorphic variants and the complete loss of OGG1 in murine models. This mouse model displays diet- and age-related induction of metabolic syndrome, highlighting a key role for OGG1 in protecting against these phenotypes. Conversely, recent investigations using murine models having enhanced global expression of a mitochondrial-targeted OGG1 demonstrate that they are highly resistant to diet-induced disease. These data suggest strategies through which therapeutic interventions could be designed for reducing or limiting adverse human health consequences to these ubiquitous stressors.
2. Science Reports. 2018 Oct 5;8(1):14886.
The DNA Repair Protein OGG1 Protects Against Obesity by Altering Mitochondrial Energetics in White Adipose Tissue.
1. Department of Nutritional Sciences and Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.
2. Laboratory of Cell Signaling and Metabolic Disorders, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Warsaw, Poland.
3. Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences, Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.
4. Department of Nutritional Sciences and Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.
Obesity and related metabolic pathologies represent a significant public health concern. Obesity is associated with increased oxidative stress that damages genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Oxidatively-induced lesions in both DNA pools are repaired via the base-excision repair pathway, initiated by DNA glycosylases such as 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1). Global deletion of OGG1 and common OGG1 polymorphisms render mice and humans susceptible to metabolic disease. However, the relative contribution of mitochondrial OGG1 to this metabolic phenotype is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that transgenic targeting of OGG1 to mitochondria confers significant protection from diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation. These favorable metabolic phenotypes are mediated by an increase in whole body energy expenditure driven by specific metabolic adaptations, including increased mitochondrial respiration in white adipose tissue of OGG1 transgenic (Ogg1Tg) animals. These data demonstrate a critical role for a DNA repair protein in modulating mitochondrial energetics and whole-body energy balance